BALL SPEED is the speed of the ball immediately after impact. Ball speed is created by club speed and impact. Bad impact such as shots hit on the toe or heel will reduce the potential ball speed.... "glancing blows"
LAUNCH ANGLE is the direction the angle the ball takes off relative to the ground. Along with BALL SPEED, LAUNCH ANGLE is a primary component to determining the height and distance of a shot.
SPIN RATE is the amount of spin on the golf ball immediately after impact. SPIN RATE has a major influence on the height and distance of a shot. More loft and more club speed will normally increase the spin rate.
CLUB SPEED is the speed the club head is traveling immediately prior to impact. It determines a golfers potential distance: more CLUB SPEED equals more potential distance. In fact, adding 1 mph of CLUB SPEED can increase your distance by up to 3 yards with the driver.
SMASH FACTOR is the ball speed divided by club speed. SMASH FACTOR relates to the amount of energy transferred from the club head to the ball. The higher the SMASH FACTOR, the better the energy transfer. Think sweet spot.
ATTACK ANGLE is the direction the club head is moving (up or down) at impact. To maximize distance with your driver, hitting up on the ball (positive angle of attack) is critical.
DYNAMIC LOFT is the amount of loft on the club face at impact. The golfer's angle of attack, how the shaft bends, how the golfer releases the club head, whether the club face is open or closed to the club path, and where the ball makes contact on the club face can all impact the DYNAMIC LOFT.
PRIMARY FACTORS AFFECTING DIRECTION
FACE ANGLE is the direction the club face is pointed (right or left) at impact. Face angle is the most important factor when determining the starting direction of the golf ball. The ball will launch very closely to the direction of the club face (face angle) at impact.
CLUB PATH is the direction the club head is moving (right or left) at impact. The club path is part of what influences the curvature of the shot as well as the starting direction of the ball. An "in to out" club path is necessary to hit a draw and an "out to in" club path is necessary to hit a fade.